Friday, 1 January 2016

The Imperial German Navy vs. Haiti, 1897 and 1902

The Imperial German Navy that went to war in 1914 was essentially a creation of previous four decades. One tends to think of it in terms of its squadrons of superbly engineered battleships and battle-cruisers, designed primarily for the anticipated show-down with the Royal Navy in the North Sea.  It was however with smaller vessels on remote locations that the most action had been seen by German naval personnel and such service was a vital element in developing the leadership and expertise of officers and ratings alike. Operations to protect trading interests in China, or in support of colonial ventures in Africa and in the Pacific, or in projecting German influence in the Caribbean, all involved light cruisers and smaller ships, some of which saw very active service indeed.
SMS Jaguar - sister of the SMS Panther
One such vessel was the gunboat SMS Panther, which in this blog has been seen in action in Venezuelan coastal waters in 1903 (Click here to read the article aboutthis). Her presence at the Moroccan port of Agadir in 1911 was to be interpreted as a hostile act by the French Government – which regarded Morocco in its sphere of influence – and the resulting crisis all but plunged Europe into World War I three years early. Before either of these events however the newly-built Panther had already played a violent international role, though against an adversary so weak that the rest of the world took little notice.
SMS Charlotte (1883): 3700-ton corvette 
The history of the Caribbean nation of Haiti had been a sad one ever since achieving independence in 1804.  Poverty, the threat of foreign intervention, negative racist attitudes by many nations towards the world’s only “Black Republic” established by ex-slaves and a succession of coups and countercoups held back development and left its people in abject poverty. In 1897 the Imperial German Government – flexing its new naval muscles – sent two warships, SMS Charlotte and SMS Stein, to intimidate Haitian president into apologising for the attest of a certain Emile Lüders, born in Haiti but whose father was German, who had been involved in a brawl. The affair was a trivial one – Lüders, though sentenced to a year’s imprisonment, had already been pardoned by the president and had left the country six weeks before the German warships arrived. Despite this, Haiti was forced to accept a humiliating climb-down –compensation of $20,000 for Lüders, a promise that he could return to Haiti, a letter of apology to the German government and a 21-gun salute to the German flag. Four hours were allowed for acceptance, which was to be accepted by raising of a white flag over the presidential palace. Out-gunned, Haiti had no option but to comply.
Humiliation, 1897: the German ultimatum is delivered to Haiti. There are four hours to comply.
Haiti’s navy consisted of a single modern vessel, the gunboat Crête-à-Pierrot which had entered service in 1896. Built in Britain, at Earle’s shipyard in Hull, this 950 ton single-screw vessel was armed with one 6-inch gun, one 4.7-inch, four 4-inch and several machine guns. Command of the Haitian navy fell to Admiral Hammerton Killick (1856 – 1902), of mixed Haitian and British descent. His job must have been an almost impossible one for shortage of funds meant that payment of crews was irregular, food insufficient and cannibalisation of parts essential to ensure operability. It was not a good foundation from which to confront the Imperial German Navy when it would next come calling.

Hammerton Killick
In 1902 Haiti was plunged yet again into one of the interminable civil conflicts that had bedevilled it since independence. This had resulted from disagreements between two political leaders, Anténor Firmin and Pierre Nord Alexis, as to who should succeed a president who had just resigned. Admiral Hammerton Killick threw his support behind Firmin and proceeded to use the ships available to him to blockade the ports held by Alexis’s forces. This affair would have remained a local one had Alexis not ordered ammunition from overseas and it was carried on a German ship, the Markomannia, of the Hamburg-Amerika Line. This ship was intercepted by Killick’s Crête-à-Pierrot, searched and it cargo confiscated, the munitions on board being transferred to the Haitian gunboat. The Markomannia was then allowed to proceed unhindered.

German prestige was judged to have been damaged by the Crête-à-Pierrot’s action, a stance that was strengthened when Alexis – the Haitian leader who had been deprived of his ammunition – appealed for help to eliminate “a pirate ship.” The task was allocated to a recently commissioned German gunboat, SMS Panther, a 1200-ton, 210-foot vessel armed with two 4-inch and six 1.5-inch guns, plus lesser weapons.   Given the differences in resources, training and professionalism, the contest was going to be an unequal one.
Crête-à-Pierrot’s after-magazine blowing up
The Crête-à-Pierrot was in the harbour of Gonaïves, on Haiti’s north-west coast, when the Panther arrived on 6th September 6. Hammerton Killick and most of the crew were on shore but he rushed back to his ship. Realising that resistance would be futile, he ordered the crew still on board to leave and then, in an insane act of defiance, wrapped himself in a Haitian flag and blew up the aft magazine. As the shattered Crête-à-Pierrot settled she took with her not only Killick but four crew members who had remained with him. His action had been eerily similar to that of the Dutch Lieutenant Jan van Speijk at Antwerp in 1831 (Click here to read an earlier article about this).

The Panther was not finished however – she poured some thirty shells into the wreck before  departing, leaving Haitian forces to salvage whatever weapons and munitions they could. It was hardly a victory to boast of. It is interesting to note that the United States did not object to the German action as a violation of the Monroe Doctrine. The State Department apparently endorsed the action and the New York Times stated that “Germany was quite within her rights in doing a little housecleaning on her own account". One cannot but have an uneasy feeling that a degree of racial prejudice was involved in this stance since the next time the SMS Panther went into action, against Venezuelan defences in 1903, it led to the so-called “Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine.” This asserted a right of the United States to intervene to "stabilise" the economic affairs of small states in the Caribbean and Central America if they were unable to pay their international debts, in order to preclude European intervention to do so.

And Hammeton Killick? Though his sacrifice may look in retrospect to be a futile one, he came to be regarded as a national hero. A stamp bearing his likeness, and with a picture of the Crête-à-Pierrot exploding, was issued by Haiti in 1943. It seems like a poor compensation for five lives, his four crew members’ as well as his own.

Just published: Britannia’s Spartan

  
In April 1882 Captain Nicholas Dawlish RN has just taken command of the Royal Navy’s newest cruiser, HMS Leonidas. Her voyage to the Far East is to be a peaceful venture, a test of this innovative vessel’s engines and boilers. Dawlish has no forewarning of the nightmare of riot, treachery, massacre and battle he and his crew will encounter.

A new balance of power is emerging in the Far East. Imperial China, weak and corrupt, is challenged by a rapidly modernising Japan, while Russia threatens from the north. All need to control Korea, a kingdom frozen in time and reluctant to emerge from centuries of isolation.

Dawlish finds himself a critical player in a complex political powder keg. He must take account of a weak Korean king and his shrewd queen, of murderous palace intrigue, of a power-broker who seems more American than Chinese and a Japanese naval captain whom he will come to despise and admire in equal measure. And he will have no one to turn to for guidance…

Click below for more details:


For UK:Click here                      For US:Click here     

17 comments:

  1. An interesting footnote in History.

    ReplyDelete
  2. Thanks Paul - It's sad to realise that these were just more incidents in the endless sequence of misery that has constituted Haiti's history. One has the impression that until relatively recently much of the rest of the world all but wished the country to fail.

    ReplyDelete
  3. This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.

    ReplyDelete
  4. This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.

    ReplyDelete
  5. This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.

    ReplyDelete
  6. This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.

    ReplyDelete
  7. This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.

    ReplyDelete
  8. This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.

    ReplyDelete
  9. This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.

    ReplyDelete
  10. This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.

    ReplyDelete
  11. Annapurna Base Camp Trek assortment may be a known steady trekking route of seven days in Annapurna range region of Asian nation. Annapurna Base Camp trekking that additionally called Annapurna Sanctuary trekking is that the greatest distinguished trekking in Asian nation. the foremost peaks of western portion of large Annapurna Himal includes Hiunchuli, Annapurna south, Fang, Annapurna, Gangapurna, Annapurna three and Machhapuchchhre that ar organized in such a fashion that they exactly type a bend that have a diameter of virtually ten miles. Annapurna base camp trek of seven days from Kathmandu to Pokhara provides the nice influence of existence of a giant area within the core Modi Khola mark its resolution within the south of this ice mass vale in slender gorge of twelve,000ft deep. when you pass what is more to the south this gorge end up to be even wider and provides rise to the productive vale wherever Gurung folks live. Trekking in Asian nation Annapurna Base Camp higher and middle half Moody Khola offers trekkers some short cut trekking ways. Annapurna base camp trekking of seven days package begin its morning flight from Kathmandu to Pokhara and therefore the terribly day it goes on to Nayapul with personal vehicles and trek extend to Natural hot reserving in Jhinu danda, from wherever begins the Annapurna base camp or Annapurna Sanctuary Trek of the Asian nation Himalaya.

    ReplyDelete
  12. Everest Base Camp Trek is one of those journeys that create your vacation dreams return true. Hiking on the legendary foothills just under the mighty Mount Everest 8848m with exciting views of the master peaks will solely be found within the Everest Region. This celebrated trek is thought worldwide for its trailblazing routes & the landscapes speak to your senses. On this trip you furthermore Mera peak out at the celebrated Kala Patthar (5,600m/18,373ft) read purpose for a few grand direct views of the very best mountain in the world. Everest Base CampTrek additionally includes different celebrated eight thousand peaks like Mt mountain peak (8,516m /27,940ft), Makalu (8,485m /27,838 ft) Cho-Oyu (8,201m /26,906ft). The culture of this specific space is of nice notebook stuff & interacting with the native of us puts a lot of zest into your venturesome journey as you walk through the Khumbu region of the Asian country. This legendary path could be a psychological thriller for top & wild hikers World Health Organization want the tread the methods wherever legends walked before on their thanks to conquering mountain peak, some did some didn’t however the Everest Base Camp Trek path keeps those legends alive for many trekkers World Health Organization head to the present region. The trip begins with a stirring mountain flight to Lukla, one among the world’s highest mountains; & as shortly as you set down at that altitude, the remainder is history. Your hike takes you to the favored village city of Namche, referred to as the ‘gateway to the Khumbu’’ & from there on you rehearse quiet monasteries with the acknowledge Sherpa of us World Health Organization inhabit this region & their culture is price noting. On the way, we have a tendency to visit the Sagarmatha parkland, home to some rare fauna & flora, this additionally wherever we have a tendency to adapt for a few time. We head deep into the Khumbu hiking into the forest of shrub, birch trees & pine, with colorful villages wherever we have a tendency to square measure sincerely welcome by the Sherpa community. we have a tendency to square measure pleasantly stunned to return across a hospital-based mostly in Khunde and health post at Pheriche that shows this region not solely cares for the locals however also are able to look out of trekkers World Health Organization have altitude issues. Doctors square measure invariably at the post for aid treatment. The Everest Base Camp Trek is arduous however varied teahouses square measure found on the paths providing smart grubbed to shelter from the generally harsh climate. Our trek culminates at base camp so we have a tendency to create a path for Namche as we have a tendency to hike back to Lukla to rendezvous for our flight to Katmandu. we have a tendency to add an additional contingency day for inclement weather which will delay flights. It’s recommended to be pretty acceptable to undertake this journey; you only want some smart hiking exercise before doing this trip. And Nepal Base Camp Treks can do the remainder to allow you AN action-packed odyssey of a period.

    ReplyDelete
  13. Why Trekking in Nepal Nepal?, a land of high hills, mountains, raging rivers and verdant deep jungles of Terai & its rich lifestyle makes one of the most sought locations inside the map of the world. a destination for all season as it's miles one of the most numerous and varied international locations on this planet a unique us of a nestled inside the excellent snow capped variety is some other advent of the mom earth and it embraces worlds' 8 highest peaks from mt.everest, mt.kanchenjonga, mt.lhotse, Makalu, Cho Oyu, Dhaulagiri, Manaslu to Annapurna massive. nepal is likewise the beginning location of Buddha (light of Asia). The Buna Treks is Local Base Under Nepal Government Trekking Agency in Nepal. blessed with wealthy nature, the brilliant Himalayan in Nepal range stretches from the far north-west to the way east where the worlds highest 8th eight-thousanders are in Nepal. nepal gives a enthralling adventure with enough time to wonder the encompassing beautiful landscapes and immerse with its warm human beings, imparting you full of range and enchantment from the low lands of Gangetic plains and its verdant dense jungle where the endangered species of Royal Bengal tigers and the one-horned rhinoceros roam, to the mythical yak and yeti trail to Everest.as the adventure and leisure tourism was hooked up in view that late 1960 and 70’s quality travel & trekking enterprise have mushroomed by using a tourism professionals Nepalese, and were leading countless of adventure trips in the course of Himalaya consisting of rafting, mountain climbing also organize adventure trekking, and entertainment trips which includes tailor-made itineraries for own family, college companies and company executives. Many of Trekking Company in Nepal are not perfect trip dealing, they have not enough Experienced. Trekking in Nepal, Nepal is domestic to community of trails also known as the amazing Himalaya trails, an extensive trail gadget that covers Nepal from humble and Darchula within the west to Kanchenjunga in the east. the range of Trekking in Nepal cannot be located in any other location of the world. in fact, the lowest factor in Nepal is fifty-nine m above sea-level inside the terai location even as the very best point is Everest, eight,848 m above sea-level, the two factors are, in a direct line, most effective two hundred kilometers aside. the majority of visitors to Nepal are available through the Tribhuvan international airport in Kathmandu. it's far in Kathmandu that trekkers want to accumulate their permits and other documentation, both from a trekking agent or from the best places of work. those files will be checked along the hiking route. for people with little time to spend in Nepal, there are half of-day hikes from Kathmandu to witness breathtaking Himalayan Trekking in Nepal perspectives in any other case trek for weeks over stunning tough mountain passes. as much as the mid-1960s just a few trekkers had generally visited Nepal and lower back then as part of corporations of excursion fans. the various huge expeditions of the day recommended trekkers to join up in an try to help balance the investment.

    ReplyDelete
  14. Trekking in Nepal is one in all the favored commercial enterprise activities in Nepal trekking is one in all the simplest means of experiencing the natural beauty and wealthy cultural
    heritage of Nepal. Nepal treks offers snow capped views of Nepal Himalaya, stunning landscape, totally different ethnic teams & their traditions, welcome, lush valleys through forests of bush, bamboo, oak, and hemlock, visiting one or 2 villages to next trekking destination. Nepal isn't merely walking hiking sooner or later when another, it's rather a gradual means of experiencing of Nepal's diversity in terms of earth science, people, faith and a large vary of culture. Shiva Excursion is Local Trekking Agency in Nepal may be each day hike to nduce to the highest on a mountain or a ridge for the spectacular views of mountain chain peaks or it may be a hiking for a month passing through villages within the shadow of lofty snow peaks, valleys, notch experiencing wealthy culture, custom and also the impressive views of the Himalaya in Asian nation. the target of Trekking in Nepal isn't simply the actual destination, however the journey itself. You travel at a modest pace, observant nature, rural communities, and spectacular mountain panoramas whereas you're trekking in Himalaya . Shiva Excursion old trekking guide can lead for path finding an introduction to the native individuals, culture, faith and mode. Under Nepal Government License holder Trekking Company in Nepal which is lead by Over 20 Years Trekking and Tour Operation Highly Recommend Everest Base Camp Trek and Annapurna Base Camp Trek. Because these Trip are most Popular and Challenging and top Destination in Nepal. Most of the Adventure, Moderate, and Easy hiking and Hard Passes Organized in Nepal. not that much enough some of Top Peak Climbing as Island Peak Climbing, Mera Peak Climbing, Lobuche Peak and Many others real adventure path of Nepal. In Nepal More then 3000 threkking Agencies and all are competion for the business sector. Some one selling cheapest and some one selling top and quality service. those Agencies as over 30% are fake travel dealing.

    ReplyDelete
  15. Manaslu Tsum Valley Trekking is freshly open trekking path in Manaslu region. Manaslu Tsum Valley trekking supply stunning Himalayan views of Mt. Manaslu 8163m, Mt. mountain peak 8167m, Mt. Annapurna8091m, twenty-three different mountain peaks, stunning landscape, Tsum Valley and mixed Nepalese culture. Manaslu Tsum Valley trek could be a sacred Everest Trekking Routes circled by the Baudha Himal and Himal Chuli to the west, Ganesh Himal to the South and Sringi Himal to the north. Tsum Valley trekking is finite by 3 high passes Ngula Dhoj Hyang (5093 m.) to the west and Yamdro Pass (5326 m). Tsum word comes from the Tibetan word 'Tsombo', which suggests vividly. Manaslu tsum natural depression trekking tour is restricted trekking in the Kingdom of Nepal and needed special trekking to allow through legal Nepal trekking agency and minimum 2 people participant obligatory trekking in Manaslu Tsum natural depression space. The smart good shape and minimum 3 we tend treks vacation needed for Tsum Valley Trekking, however, Everest Trekking Routes prepare customized trekking service as per trekkers want and vacation schedule. Fall & spring season is the best time trekking in Tsum natural depression, however, we tend to ETR prepare around the year as per trekkers vacation schedule.Manaslu Tsum Valley trekking begins at Arughat Bazaar Gorkha once 6-7 hours drive from Kathmandu. Everest Trekking Routes trekking guide LED through stunning Valley of Machhikhola, Jagat Lakpa River Dupchet and at last reach the Tsum natural depression. Tsum natural depression Trekking has completely different choices Manaslu Circuit Larke larke la pass trekking, Tsum Valley, Manaslu circuit trekking, Manaslu Rupina La pass trekking or solely Tsum natural depression trek begin from Arughat and finish at the same place. Ordinarily, inhabitation / tented trekking is additional appropriate and cozy for Manaslu Tsum Valley trekking however currently a day’s tea house/lodge trekking is worn out this space. We tend to Everest Trekking Routes prepare either tea house or inhabitation trekking as per trekkers want and need. We’ve mentioned below 3 completely different choices trekking in Manaslu tsum Valley, however, trekking itinerary style in keeping with travelers/trekker’s demand.the part of Annapurna and Ganesh Himal between Wilderness and Restricted area of Nepal.


    ReplyDelete
  16. Are You looking for Trekking in Nepal? If you haven't, then you're seriously missing out! Not solely is it a fine looking journey, however it additionally Journey Nepal Adventure Leaking. The land of the Himalayas, Nepal presents wonders that area unit breath-taking. From the chain of mountains landscapes to the wealthy cultural attribute, trekking in Nepal is really a wonderful deed. Visit lovely ethnic chain of mountains settlements and villages. visit destinations at beautiful watercourse valleys hard boring distinctive terrains. Walk on winding trails passing through heavenly alpine forests and inexperienced pastures. Trekking in the Himalayas may be a marvel that's undeniably awe-inspiring! Best Trekking in Agency Nepal holidays square measure fearless leisure pursuits for people that need some ‘real fun’ in their hard-earned break. Trekking and hiking, a journey on foot to mountainous areas are analogous to hiking, except treks cowl a bigger distance. The Kingdom of Nepal offers a spread of each technical and nontechnical walks across its fantastically numerous tract. because of its growing quality among hikers and trekkers, the Kingdom of Nepal at this time is witnessing a
    boom within the business enterprise trade for trekking and hiking. The Journey Nepal Adventure is Small Business Trekking Agency in Nepal, which is Self Guide and Tour Operator has Been setting Local Running Trekking Company in Nepal. All Professional and Mountaineering Staff and well Training Base Himalayan kingdom of Nepal.Are You
    Looking For Best Trekking Agency in Nepal
    Journey Nepal Adventure Pvt. Ltd. is government register agency (licensed Mountain Guide team) in the Nepalese Himalayas Ranges… After working 10 years (since 2008) on the tough trails for several years as a mountain staff crew, and working so hard to develop our fluency in English languages, We became a guide in the year 2008 to 2016. We have spent the past 10years as a professional Himalaya
    trekking guide, working for several Popular Trekking Company in Nepal; we have now decided to work as an independent guide and self-leading to provide all our
    national and international clients, who like to enjoy their Himalaya trekking holidays tour with us (https://www.journeynepaladv.com)

    ReplyDelete
  17. Namaste Dear Valuables Trekkers and Climber Well, Adventure Everest Team is Mainly Organized Peak Climbing and Everest Expedition in Nepal and also those where are most popular Trekking Route as well. The Basically Everest base camp Trek, Everest Chola Pass Trek and Gokyo LakeTrek, Everest Three pass trek, Phaplu to Everest Base Camp and Everest Panorama Trek. These trip are most popular and Best Hiking in Nepal. the Trip start from lukla to Lukla or phaplu to all the way up everest base camp return to lukla fly back to Kathmandu.
    Adventure Everest Team is local base and Under Nepal government license holder Trekking Agency in Nepal which is more the 20 Years Experienced in this tourism industry. Base Full Board Packages Selling and Mostly Organized Peak Climbing Expedition in nepal. The Island Peak Climbing, Lobuche Peak Climbing, Ramdung Peak Climbing, Amadablam Expedition in nepal. there are not that lead to Adventure type of Expedition. we do have Mt Everest Expedition, Lhotse Expedition, Pumori Expedition, Nuptse Expedition, Barutse Expedition and Many Others Expedition in Nepal. these all trip are east part of Nepal. Mr Kul Bahadur Tamang run by Local Trekking Company in Nepal. as Professional team and Most of the Climbing guide are already maded Everest Expedition and over 8000 meters. and license holder Mountain Guide. Generarly Mr Kul run Hotel in Dingboche Good luck make happy to all of Clients and combine both Trekking Company in Nepal. The main aim is how to make happy all of valuable clients those who are travelling in Nepal. Secondary trip selling in Annapurna Region which is most popular trip Annapurna Base Camp Trek, mardi himal trek, Annapurna Circuit trek, Manaslu Circuit Trek, manaslu Tsum Valley Trek, Upper Mustang Trek, Kanchenjunga Trek, Upper Dolpo trek and Rara Lake Trek. these trip is South Part of Nepal. Chulu West peak Climbing and Chulu East Peak Climbing is very general and Popular Trekking Peak Climbing in Nepal.

    ReplyDelete